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  1. #1
    Senior Member Serge's Avatar
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    Cool Auto Top Off Controller with Solid State Relay

    INTRODUCTION

    As with many things in life, necessity is the mother of many innovations/inventions. In this particular case, I modified electronic circuits, available on the internet, to suit my personal requirements. My requirements were pretty simple:

    Easy to build, minimum amount of parts, reliable, no mechanical relay, keep the 120 Volts AC away from the salt water area, have visual indication when things are on or off and have remote control of the RO/DI system located in the basement.
    Serge

    Common Sense - Is'nt!!


  2. #2
    Senior Member Serge's Avatar
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    Unfortunately, I do have to include the section below.

    LEGAL DISCLAIMER

    I do NOT own rights/patents to any of the circuits or parts thereof, all the original information was obtained from the internet. This was built for my personal use, I am merely sharing this information with others DIY enthusiasts, FREE of charges, for the sake of making this hobby a little easier to manage end enjoy.

    Should you decide to build this controller system, you are on your own. I am not and will not be responsible in any way, shape or form for what you do and how you use the information provided. In other words, if you decide to build this, by using the information provided, you agree that I am not and will not be responsible, you assume any and all responsibility, causes, effects, disaster, whatever, that may or may not occur. After assembling this little circuit, it may or may not work for you.

    As with anything involving live household voltage/current, one must be diligent and apply the required caution that live AC commands. If you do not know what you are doing, or are not knowledgeable enough, in the fields of electronics or household electricity, do not attempt to build this. Otherwise, enlist the help/assistance of someone that is.

    The only thing I can guarantee is that, after spending weeks of bread boarding, integrating, testing and debugging, I have build a working system and it works fine for me.

    That being said now, I hope it will be useful for you and will, indeed, make your hobby more enjoyable.

    END OF LEGAL DISCLAIMER
    Serge

    Common Sense - Is'nt!!


  3. #3
    Senior Member Serge's Avatar
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    PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION

    When the container is filled at the maximum desired level, both float switches, FL1 and FL2, will be in the "open state". Meaning there is no current flowing through it. As water evaporates, the water level in the container will go down.

    When water level gets below a certain level, float switch FL1 will be in the "closed state" allowing current to flow through it. At this point, nothing happens yet, except that the circuit is now ready for action.

    Later on, water will go down to a certain level that will also place switch FL2 in the "closed state" allowing current flow. When this happens, the pump will start running to push water where you want it. Either RO/DI water from your prepared water container to your tank, or as in my case, it will activate a solenoid that directly feeds the RO/DI unit, which is connected to a very long plastic tube, which fills up my sump. As the water level rises in the sump, switch FL2 will eventually change to the "open state", but water will continue to flow until the level is high enough to change switch FL1 to the "open state". At this point, the circuit is reset, the pump/solenoid stops until the next time the water level is low enough to activate switch FL2 (closed state).

    This is it! This is the basic principle of operation of my automated top off controller. Now, on with the manual modes of this gizmo.
    Serge

    Common Sense - Is'nt!!


  4. #4
    Senior Member Serge's Avatar
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    LOCAL CONTROL IN BASEMENT

    If you would like to fill a container with RO/DI, while you are in the basement, it is easy. The only requirement is that you have a Tee connector and two valves, to redirect the water output to your local water line in the basement. Piece of cake! Open the valve for downstairs output, close the valve for upstairs output, and turn on switch S4 to activate your pump/solenoid. LED D1 will turn on and voila! Sit tight and wait or check later. Do not forget to switch back your two valves when you are done!!
    Serge

    Common Sense - Is'nt!!


  5. #5
    Senior Member Serge's Avatar
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    REMOTE CONTROL UPSTAIRS

    If you would like to fill a container with RO/DI, it is the same principle as explained in the previous paragraph with a few differences. You still require a Tee connector and two valves. One output will be to your sump (normal operation) and the other will be use for manual output. Close the valve for normal operation, open the other valve and turn on switch S3. LED D6 will turn on and your pump/solenoid, downstairs will start. When done, turn off switch S3 and switch back your valves.

    NOTE

    If you do not desire to have one or the other, or any of the manual features, later I will list the parts that you can skip.
    Serge

    Common Sense - Is'nt!!


  6. #6
    Senior Member Serge's Avatar
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    PARTS LIST

    RESISTORS: All watt @ 2%

    39 Ohms: R9
    330 Ohms: R8
    360 Ohms: R6
    620 Ohms: R5, R7, R12
    1 Kilo Ohms: R10, R11
    1.5 Kilo Ohms: R2, R3
    4.7 Kilo Ohms: R1, R4


    CAPACITORS:

    C1: 0.01 Microfarad (Disk)
    C2: 0.01 Microfarad @ 200 volts (Mylar)
    C3: 1000 Microfarads @ 35 volts (Electrolytic)
    C4: 10 Microfarads @ 25 volts (Electrolytic)


    DISCREET DEVICES:

    IC-1: 555 Timer Chip
    IC-2: MOC3041 Optoisolator Triac Driver Chip
    IC-3: 7805 Voltage Regulator Chip. Rated for 5 volts @ 1 Amp. Case Type: TO-220
    Q1: 2N2222 NPN Transistor
    Q2: MAC4DLM Triac Chip. Rated for 600 volts @ 4 amps. Case Type: 369D


    DIODES/LED:

    D1, D5: HLMP4740 Green LED
    D4, D6: MV5752 Red LED
    D2, D3: Rectifier Diodes. Rated for 125 volts @ 2 amps.

    MISCELLANEOUS:

    FL1, FL2: Reed Switches Float Switches Normally Open (NO) Type

    S1, S2, S3, S4: Small Toggle Switches SPST Rated for 125 volts @ 2 amps minimum.

    T1: Power Transformer 125V/24 volts CT @ 1 amp.

    F1: Fuse 1.5 amp @ 125 volts

    Solenoid: Solenoid Rated 24 volts @ 500 milliamp.

    Circuit Boards Radio Shack Type.

    Some Small Wire Telephone Type Wire

    Some Gauge 14 Cable Power Cord Type

    Some Electronics Solder

    Some 6 Wire Cable Telephone Type Wire

    Metal Enclosure to House the Main Circuit Boards and Power Supply.

    Some Plastic Standoffs to Support and Isolate your Circuit Boards

    Electrician Tape

    Plastic Enclosure to House your Remote Control Box

    Two Wire Quick Connect (4 Required)

    Four Wire Quick Connect (2 Required)

    Six Wire Quick Connect (4 Required)
    Serge

    Common Sense - Is'nt!!


  7. #7
    Senior Member Serge's Avatar
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    If you do not whish to include remote switch S3 (Upstairs), you can skip the installation of the following parts: S3, R12, D5.

    If you do not whish to include local switch S4 (Downstairs), you can skip the following parts: S4, D1, R7.

    One more thing, in this circuit configuration, the current limitation is 1 amp @ 24 Vac. Limitations set by the power supply and the solenoid. I choosed a 1 amp supply even if my solenoid only require 500 mA, because I also wanted to feed the 5 Vdc supply from the same AC source.

    If you want to crank something that uses more amps, you will need to take this into consideration.

    That's it.
    Serge

    Common Sense - Is'nt!!


  8. #8
    Senior Member Serge's Avatar
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    Well, I think you have pretty much all the information required to build this baby. The only warnings I can make are: Beware of over-heating your parts when soldering. This is common reason for circuit failure. Heat is a big killer of home-brew projects. Also pay attention when connecting the integrated circuits, transistor or triac. If wiring is incorrect you can destroy the internal circuits.

    The other thing I want to say is be VERY CAREFUL when dealing with live AC power!! And do not forget to ground your metal enclosure!!

    Schematics and pictures will follow.

    Enjoy and happy DIY!!!
    Serge

    Common Sense - Is'nt!!


  9. #9
    Senior Member Serge's Avatar
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    Float Switches Control Schematic.
    Serge

    Common Sense - Is'nt!!


  10. #10
    Senior Member Serge's Avatar
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    Optoisolator/Triac Control Schematic
    Serge

    Common Sense - Is'nt!!


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